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Women's Health Scientific References

Fertility | Women's Health | Urology | Rheumatology General Health


LATEST RESEARCH UPDATE: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial evaluated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the metabolic profiles of insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women were randomized into one of three groups: high-dose vitamin D (4,000 IU) + metformin (1500 mg), low-dose vitamin D (1,000 IU) + metformin (1500 mg), or vitamin D placebo + metformin (1500 mg) for 12 weeks. The study found that 4,000 IU group (compared to the 1000 IU and placebo groups) had significant improvement in fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, total testosterone, free androgen index, hirsutism, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in women with PCOS and insulin resistance. For more information, check out the article abstract


Cervical Health

Folate/Folic Acid
Green Tea
Vitamin A
Vitamin B12
Vitamin C
Vitamin E



Omega-3 Fish Oil (DHA)
Vitamin D




(2013/12) Phytoestrogens for menopausal vasomotor symptoms.

(2012/07) Extracted or synthesized soybean isoflavones reduce menopausal hot flash frequency and severity: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

(2011/07) Soy extracts versus hormone therapy for reduction of menopausal hot flushes: indirect comparison.

(2011/05) The effect of soy-derived isoflavones over hot flushes, menopausal symptoms and mood in climacteric women with increased body mass index.

(2011/02) Clinical outcomes of a 2-y soy isoflavone supplementation in menopausal women.

(2010/11) The effect of dietary soy supplementation compared to estrogen and placebo on menopausal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

(2009/05) Various doses of soy isoflavones do not modify mammographic density in postmenopausal women.  

(2009/03) Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on hot flushes, endometrium, and vaginal epithelium in postmenopausal women: a 2-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

(2008/07) Effect of intestinal production of equol on menopausal symptoms in women treated with soy isoflavones.

(2007/11) Efficacy and safety of a soy isoflavone extract in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study.  

(2007/10) Phytoestrogens for vasomotor menopausal symptoms.

(2007/07) Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on hot flushes, endometrium, and vaginal epithelium in postmenopausal women: a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

(2006/10) Isoflavone therapy for menopausal flushes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

(2006/09) Isoflavone supplements containing predominantly genistein reduce hot flash symptoms: a critical review of published studies.

(2003/03) Efficacy of soyfoods and soybean isoflavone supplements for alleviating menopausal symptoms is positively related to initial hot flush frequency.

(2002/03) Benefits of soy isoflavone therapeutic regimen on menopausal symptoms. 

Vitamin D


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)


(2017/08) Comparison of myo-inositol and metformin on clinical, metabolic and genetic parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

(2017/05) Metformin vs myoinositol: which is better in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients? A randomized controlled crossover study.

(2017/01)Comparison of two insulin sensitizers, metformin and myo-inositol, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

(2016/10) Inositol Treatment and ART Outcomes in Women with PCOS

(2016/08)Myo-Inositol in the Treatment of Teenagers Affected by PCOS.

(2016/08) Prospective Randomized Study on the Influence of Myoinositol in PCOS Women Undergoing IVF in the Improvement of Oocyte Quality, Fertilization Rate, and Embryo Quality.

(2016/07) A Combined Therapy with Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro-Inositol Improves Endocrine Parameters and Insulin Resistance in PCOS Young Overweight Women.

(2015/12) Results from the International Consensus Conference on Myo-inositol and d-chiro-inositol in Obstetrics and Gynecology: the link between metabolic syndrome and PCOS.

(2015/08) Inositol versus Metformin administration in polycystic ovary syndrome patients: a case–control study

(2015/07) Reflections on inositol(s) for PCOS therapy: steps toward success.

(2015/02) Ovulation induction with myo-inositol alone and in combination with clomiphene citrate in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients with insulin resistance

(2014/10) The rationale of the myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol combined treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome.

(2014/05) Myo-inositol modulates insulin and luteinizing hormone secretion in normal weight patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

(2014/03) Comparison between effects of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS.

(2013/12) The combined therapy myo-inositol plus D-chiro-inositol, rather than D-chiro-inositol, is able to improve IVF outcomes: results from a randomized controlled trial.

(2013/04) Endocrine and clinical effects of myo-inositol administration in polycystic ovary syndrome. A randomized study.

(2013/02) The combined therapy myo-inositol plus D-Chiro-inositol, in a physiological ratio, reduces the cardiovascular risk by improving the lipid profile in PCOS patients.

(2012/05) The combined therapy with myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol reduces the risk of metabolic disease in PCOS overweight patients compared to myo-inositol supplementation alone.

(2012/02) Diet, metformin and inositol in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: effects on body composition.

(2011/05) Effects of myo-inositol supplementation on oocyte's quality in PCOS patients: a double blind trial.

(2011/04) Myo-inositol rather than D-chiro-inositol is able to improve oocyte quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. A prospective, controlled, randomized trial.

(2010/04) Insulin sensitiser agents alone and in co-treatment with r-FSH for ovulation induction in PCOS women.

(2009/08) Efficacy of myo-inositol in the treatment of cutaneous disorders in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

(2009/05) Myo-inositol may improve oocyte quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. A prospective, controlled, randomized trial.

(2009/03) Metabolic and hormonal effects of myo-inositol in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a double-blind trial.

(2007/09) Randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial: effects of myo-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS. 

Omega-3 Fish Oil
Vitamin D



Calcium and Vitamin D
Coenzyme Q10
Folate/Folic Acid
Omega-3 Fish Oil (DHA)

(2015/11) Effects of omega-3 fatty acids in prevention of early preterm delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies.

(2013/04) DHA supplementation and pregnancy outcomes.

(2012/03) Omega-3 fatty acids and pregnancy: current implications for practice.

(2012/01) Effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on infants' allergies in first year of life: randomised controlled trial.

(2011/08) Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Infant Morbidity: Randomized Controlled Trial.

(2011/08) Evidence regarding an effect of marine n-3 fatty acids on preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

(2011/08) Atopy risk in infants and children in relation to early exposure to fish, oily fish, or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: a systematic review.

(2011/07) The effect of perinatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory markers and allergic diseases: a systematic review.

(2011/06) Maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy does not affect early visual development in the infant: a randomized controlled trial.

(2011/04) Prenatal fatty acid status and child adiposity at age 3 y: results from a US pregnancy cohort.

(2010/11) Prenatal omega-3 fatty acids: review and recommendations.

(2010/10) Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trial

(2010/10) Effects of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and/or Lactation on Neurodevelopment and Visual Function in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

(2010/07) Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): from the maternal-foetal dyad to the complementary feeding period

(2009/12) Atopy Risk in Infants and Children in Relation to Early Exposure to Fish, Oily Fish, or Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids: A Systematic Review

(2009/02) Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in pregnancy and lactation

(2008/01) Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial

(2007/12) The effects of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on breast milk fatty acid composition over the course of lactation: a randomized controlled trial

(2007/08) Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

(2007/08) Effect of supplementation of women in high-risk pregnancies with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

(2007/06) Does maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation lower BMI in late infancy?

(2007/06) Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid-containing functional food during pregnancy: benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not on recognition memory tasks at age 9 mo

(2007/03) A docosahexaenoic acid-functional food during pregnancy benefits infant visual acuity at four but not six months of age.

(2006/06) Effects of n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation

(2003/12) Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial.

(2003/01) Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age

Vitamin B6
Vitamin D

(2016/01) The effects of vitamin D plus calcium supplementation on metabolic profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia

(2015/10) Vitamin D status is inversely associated with anemia and serum erythropoietin during pregnancy.

(2015/01) Typical Prenatal Vitamin D Supplement Intake Does Not Prevent Decrease of Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D at Birth

(2014/12) Dietary Fat Increases Vitamin D-3 Absorption

(2014/07) Association Between Sex Steroids, Ovarian Reserve, and Vitamin D Levels in Healthy Nonobese Women

(2013/03) Association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

(2012/09) Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus. (2012/08) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D during pregnancy and small-for-gestational age in black and white infants.

(2012/07) Effects of 25OHD concentrations on chances of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes: a cohort study in healthy Danish women.

(2012/05) Association of low serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels in pregnancy with glucose homeostasis and obstetric and newborn outcomes.

(2012/04) Maternal vitamin D status and delivery by cesarean.

(2012/03) Maternal serum vitamin D levels during pregnancy and offspring neurocognitive development.

(2012/03) Longitudinal vitamin D status in pregnancy and the risk of pre-eclampsia.

(2012/02) Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy.

(2012/01) Maternal serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

(2011/12) Maternal vitamin D, folate, and polyunsaturated fatty acid status and bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy.

(2011/12) Vitamin D status during pregnancy: maternal, fetal, and postnatal outcomes.

(2011/10) Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: double-blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness.

(2011/09) Systematic review of first-trimester vitamin D normative levels and outcomes of pregnancy.

(2011/06) Maternal vitamin D and fetal growth in early-onset severe preeclampsia.

(2011/06) Cord blood vitamin D deficiency is associated with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

(2011/01) Cord-blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of respiratory infection, wheezing, and asthma.

(2011/01) Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common during pregnancy. (2011/01) Pregnancy-specific association of vitamin D deficiency and bacterial vaginosis.

(2010/12) Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a group at high risk for pre-eclampsia.

(2010/12) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in early-onset severe preeclampsia

(2010/11) A nested case-control study of midgestation vitamin D deficiency and risk of severe preeclampsia

(2010/10) First trimester vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and subsequent preeclampsia.

(2010/08) Vitamin D deficiency and pregnancy: from preconception to birth.

(2010/08) Vitamin D inadequacy in pregnancy: biology, outcomes, and interventions.

(2010/05) Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in the United States.

(2010/05) Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with small-for-gestational age births in white women

(2010/01) Low maternal vitamin D status and fetal bone development: cohort study.

(2009/09) Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women: a longitudinal study.

(2009/06) Maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with bacterial vaginosis in the first trimester of pregnancy

(2009/05) Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy  (2009/04) Vitamin D intake during pregnancy: association with maternal characteristics and infant birth weight (2009/03) Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Primary Cesarean Section

(2008/03) Maternal Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and the Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

(2007/02) High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates

(2006/04) Nutritional vitamin D status during pregnancy: reasons for concern.

(2006/01) Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study.

(2004/05) Assessment of dietary vitamin D requirements during pregnancy and lactation






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