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Women's Health Scientific References

Fertility | Women's Health | Urology | Rheumatology | General Health


LATEST RESEARCH UPDATE: A recently published systematic review and meta-analysis found that omega-3 fatty acids decreased insulin resistance and lipid levels in women with PCOS. Nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the analysis and doses of omega-3s ranged from 900 to 4000 mg per day. For more information, check out the article abstract.


Cervical Health

Folate/Folic Acid
Green Tea
Vitamin A
Vitamin B12
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Vitamin E



Omega-3 Fish Oil (DHA)

(2017/12) The effect of fish oil supplementation on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a triple-blind, randomized controlled trial.

(2016/03) Effects of omega-3 fatty acids in prevention of early preterm delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies.

(2016/01) Omega-3 long-chain PUFA intake during pregnancy and allergic disease outcomes in the offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials.

(2015/08) The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods.

(2012/06) Determinants of DHA levels in early infancy: differential effects of breast milk and direct fish oil supplementation.

(2011/07) Fish oil supplementation during lactation: effects on cognition and behavior at 7 years of age.

(2011/07) High-dose docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of preterm infants: respiratory and allergy outcomes.

(2010/12) Effects of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed term infants

(2010/12) Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to breastfeeding mothers for improving child growth and development

(2010/08) Compartmental analyses of 2H5-alpha-linolenic acid and C-U-eicosapentaenoic acid toward synthesis of plasma labeled 22:6n-3 in newborn term infants

(2010/02) The DIAMOND (DHA Intake And Measurement Of Neural Development) Study: a double-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial of the maturation of infant visual acuity as a function of the dietary level of docosahexaenoic acid.

(2005/10) Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

(2005/08) Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation and growth during the first 2.5 years of life

(2004/03) Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

Vitamin D

(2018/09) Maternal Supplementation of Vitamin D during Lactation to Support Infant Vitamin D Needs: A Systematic Review.

(2018/01) A Longitudinal Study of 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Status throughout Pregnancy and Exclusive Lactation in New Zealand Mothers and Their Infants at 45° S.

(2016/01) Vitamin D content in human breast milk: a 9-mo follow-up study.

(2015/08) Maternal vitamin D₃ supplementation at 50 μg/d protects against low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in infants at 8 wk of age: a randomized controlled trial of 3 doses of vitamin D beginning in gestation and continued in lactation.

(2015/10) Maternal Versus Infant Vitamin D Supplementation During Lactation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

(2014/09) Impact of vitamin D supplementation during lactation on vitamin D status and body composition of mother-infant pairs: a MAVID randomized controlled trial.

(2010/07) Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels in fully breastfed infants on oral vitamin d supplementation.

(2010/01) Use of supplemental vitamin d among infants breastfed for prolonged periods.

(2009/04) Vitamin D requirements in the first year of life

(2009/01) Effect of combined maternal and infant vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed infants.

(2008/11) Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents

(2007/06) Efficacy of daily and monthly high-dose calciferol in vitamin D-deficient nulliparous and lactating women.

(2006/07) High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of breastfeeding mothers and their infants: a 6-month follow-up pilot study.

(2006/04) The effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on serum vitamin D levels and milk calcium concentration in lactating women and their infants

(2004/12) Vitamin D requirements during lactation: high-dose maternal supplementation as therapy to prevent hypovitaminosis D for both the mother and the nursing infant.




(2016/06) Use of Plant-Based Therapies and Menopausal Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

(2016/06) Consensus: soy isoflavones as a first-line approach to the treatment of menopausal vasomotor complaints.

(2015/04) Efficacy of phytoestrogens for menopausal symptoms: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

(2013/12) Phytoestrogens for menopausal vasomotor symptoms.

(2012/07) Extracted or synthesized soybean isoflavones reduce menopausal hot flash frequency and severity: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

(2011/07) Soy extracts versus hormone therapy for reduction of menopausal hot flushes: indirect comparison.

(2011/05) The effect of soy-derived isoflavones over hot flushes, menopausal symptoms and mood in climacteric women with increased body mass index.

(2011/02) Clinical outcomes of a 2-y soy isoflavone supplementation in menopausal women.

(2010/11) The effect of dietary soy supplementation compared to estrogen and placebo on menopausal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

(2009/05) Various doses of soy isoflavones do not modify mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

(2009/03) Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on hot flushes, endometrium, and vaginal epithelium in postmenopausal women: a 2-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

(2008/07) Effect of intestinal production of equol on menopausal symptoms in women treated with soy isoflavones.

(2007/11) Efficacy and safety of a soy isoflavone extract in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study.

(2007/10) Phytoestrogens for vasomotor menopausal symptoms.

(2007/07) Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on hot flushes, endometrium, and vaginal epithelium in postmenopausal women: a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

(2006/10) Isoflavone therapy for menopausal flushes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

(2006/09) Isoflavone supplements containing predominantly genistein reduce hot flash symptoms: a critical review of published studies.

(2003/03) Efficacy of soyfoods and soybean isoflavone supplements for alleviating menopausal symptoms is positively related to initial hot flush frequency.

(2002/03) Benefits of soy isoflavone therapeutic regimen on menopausal symptoms.

Vitamin D


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)


(2018/07) The use of inositol(s) isomers in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome: a comprehensive review.

(2017/11) Myo-inositol effects in women with PCOS: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

(2017/08) Comparison of myo-inositol and metformin on clinical, metabolic and genetic parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

(2017/06) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Insights into the Therapeutic Approach with Inositols.

(2017/05) Metformin vs myoinositol: which is better in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients? A randomized controlled crossover study.

(2017/01)Comparison of two insulin sensitizers, metformin and myo-inositol, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

(2016/10) Inositol Treatment and ART Outcomes in Women with PCOS

(2016/08)Myo-Inositol in the Treatment of Teenagers Affected by PCOS.

(2016/08) Prospective Randomized Study on the Influence of Myoinositol in PCOS Women Undergoing IVF in the Improvement of Oocyte Quality, Fertilization Rate, and Embryo Quality.

(2016/07) A Combined Therapy with Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro-Inositol Improves Endocrine Parameters and Insulin Resistance in PCOS Young Overweight Women.

(2015/12) Results from the International Consensus Conference on Myo-inositol and d-chiro-inositol in Obstetrics and Gynecology: the link between metabolic syndrome and PCOS.

(2015/08) Inositol versus Metformin administration in polycystic ovary syndrome patients: a case–control study

(2015/07) Reflections on inositol(s) for PCOS therapy: steps toward success.

(2015/02) Ovulation induction with myo-inositol alone and in combination with clomiphene citrate in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients with insulin resistance

(2014/10) The rationale of the myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol combined treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome.

(2014/05) Myo-inositol modulates insulin and luteinizing hormone secretion in normal weight patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

(2014/03) Comparison between effects of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS.

(2013/12) The combined therapy myo-inositol plus D-chiro-inositol, rather than D-chiro-inositol, is able to improve IVF outcomes: results from a randomized controlled trial.

(2013/04) Endocrine and clinical effects of myo-inositol administration in polycystic ovary syndrome. A randomized study.

(2013/02) The combined therapy myo-inositol plus D-Chiro-inositol, in a physiological ratio, reduces the cardiovascular risk by improving the lipid profile in PCOS patients.

(2012/05) The combined therapy with myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol reduces the risk of metabolic disease in PCOS overweight patients compared to myo-inositol supplementation alone.

(2012/02) Diet, metformin and inositol in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: effects on body composition.

(2011/05) Effects of myo-inositol supplementation on oocyte's quality in PCOS patients: a double blind trial.

(2011/04) Myo-inositol rather than D-chiro-inositol is able to improve oocyte quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. A prospective, controlled, randomized trial.

(2010/04) Insulin sensitiser agents alone and in co-treatment with r-FSH for ovulation induction in PCOS women.

(2009/08) Efficacy of myo-inositol in the treatment of cutaneous disorders in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

(2009/05) Myo-inositol may improve oocyte quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. A prospective, controlled, randomized trial.

(2009/03) Metabolic and hormonal effects of myo-inositol in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a double-blind trial.

(2007/09) Randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial: effects of myo-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS.

Omega-3 Fish Oil
Vitamin D



Calcium and Vitamin D
Coenzyme Q10
Folate/Folic Acid

(2018/03) Myo-inositol lowers the risk of developing gestational diabetic mellitus in pregnancies: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analysis.

(2018/02) The efficacy of myo-inositol supplementation to prevent gestational diabetes onset: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

(2017/06) The Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus With Antenatal Oral Inositol Supplementation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

(2016/10) Myo-inositol may prevent gestational diabetes onset in overweight women: a randomized, controlled trial.

(2015/12) Antenatal dietary supplementation with myo-inositol in women during pregnancy for preventing gestational diabetes.

(2015/10) Relationship Between Myo-Inositol Supplementary and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.

(2015/08) Myo-inositol Supplementation for Prevention of Gestational Diabetes in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

(2013/07) Effect of dietary myo-inositol supplementation in pregnancy on the incidence of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal outcomes: a randomized controlled trial.

(2013/04) Myo-Inositol supplementation and onset of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women with a family history of type 2 diabetes: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

(2012/06) Myo-inositol may prevent gestational diabetes in PCOS women.

(2011/08) The effect of myoinositol supplementation on insulin resistance in patients with gestational diabetes.


(2018/07) Iodine status during pregnancy and lactation: a pilot study in the Netherlands.

(2016/09) Consequences of iodine deficiency and excess in pregnant women: an overview of current knowns and unknowns.

(2013/11) Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnancy on child development and other clinical outcomes: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

(2011/12) Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

(2011/09) Dietary iodine in pregnancy and postpartum.

(2011/04) Effect of iodine supplementation during pregnancy on infant neurodevelopment at 1 year of age.

(2010/11) The relationship of radiocontrast, iodine, and seafood allergies: a medical myth exposed.

(2010/06) Some Subgroups of Reproductive Age Women in the United States May Be at Risk for Iodine Deficiency

(2009/09) Effect of iodine prophylaxis during pregnancy on neurocognitive development of children during the first two years of life.

(2009/05) Delayed neurobehavioral development in children born to pregnant women with mild hypothyroxinemia during the first month of gestation: the importance of early iodine supplementation.

(2009/02) Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review

(2007/12) Iodine deficiency and brain development in the first half of pregnancy

(2007/12) The prevalence of iodine deficiency in women of reproductive age in the United States of America

(2007/09) The adverse effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy and childhood: a review

(2006/10) Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid Association

Omega-3 Fish Oil (DHA)

(2017/03) The effects of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid co-supplementation on glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with gestational diabetes.

(2016/10) Prenatal supplementation with DHA improves attention at 5 y of age: a randomized controlled trial.

(2016/09) The effect of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on infant outcomes in African American women living in low-income environments: A randomized, controlled trial.

(2015/11) Effects of omega-3 fatty acids in prevention of early preterm delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies.

(2013/04) DHA supplementation and pregnancy outcomes.

(2012/03) Omega-3 fatty acids and pregnancy: current implications for practice.

(2012/01) Effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on infants' allergies in first year of life: randomised controlled trial.

(2011/08) Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Infant Morbidity: Randomized Controlled Trial.

(2011/08) Evidence regarding an effect of marine n-3 fatty acids on preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

(2011/08) Atopy risk in infants and children in relation to early exposure to fish, oily fish, or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: a systematic review.

(2011/07) The effect of perinatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory markers and allergic diseases: a systematic review.

(2011/06) Maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy does not affect early visual development in the infant: a randomized controlled trial.

(2011/04) Prenatal fatty acid status and child adiposity at age 3 y: results from a US pregnancy cohort.

(2010/10) Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trial

(2010/10) Effects of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and/or Lactation on Neurodevelopment and Visual Function in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

(2009/12) Atopy Risk in Infants and Children in Relation to Early Exposure to Fish, Oily Fish, or Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids: A Systematic Review

(2008/01) Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial

(2007/12) The effects of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on breast milk fatty acid composition over the course of lactation: a randomized controlled trial

(2007/08) Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil

(2007/08) Effect of supplementation of women in high-risk pregnancies with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

(2007/06) Does maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation lower BMI in late infancy?

(2007/06) Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid-containing functional food during pregnancy: benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not on recognition memory tasks at age 9 mo

(2003/12) Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial.

(2003/01) Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age

Vitamin B6
Vitamin D

(2018/01) Maternal Vitamin D Status and Risk of Gestational Diabetes: a Meta-Analysis.

(2018/01) Maternal early pregnancy vitamin D status in relation to low birth weight and small-for-gestational-age offspring.

(2017/11) Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: state of the evidence from a systematic review of randomised trials.

(2017/10) Prenatal vitamin D supplementation reduces risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in early childhood: A combined analysis of two randomized controlled trials.

(2017/09) Meta-analysis of the effect of the maternal vitamin D level on the risk of spontaneous pregnancy loss.

(2017/07) Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations ≥40 ng/mL associated with 60% lower preterm birth risk among general obstetrical patients at an urban medical center.

(2015/10) Vitamin D status is inversely associated with anemia and serum erythropoietin during pregnancy.

(2015/01) Typical Prenatal Vitamin D Supplement Intake Does Not Prevent Decrease of Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D at Birth

(2014/12) Dietary Fat Increases Vitamin D-3 Absorption.

(2014/07) Association Between Sex Steroids, Ovarian Reserve, and Vitamin D Levels in Healthy Nonobese Women

(2013/07) Health characteristics and outcomes of two randomized vitamin D supplementation trials during pregnancy: a combined analysis.

(2013/03) Association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

(2013/02) A randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation in 2 community health center networks in South Carolina.

(2012/09) Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus.

(2012/08) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D during pregnancy and small-for-gestational age in black and white infants.

(2012/07) Effects of 25OHD concentrations on chances of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes: a cohort study in healthy Danish women.

(2012/05) Association of low serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels in pregnancy with glucose homeostasis and obstetric and newborn outcomes.

(2012/04) Maternal vitamin D status and delivery by cesarean.

(2012/03) Maternal serum vitamin D levels during pregnancy and offspring neurocognitive development.

(2012/03) Longitudinal vitamin D status in pregnancy and the risk of pre-eclampsia.

(2012/02) Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy.

(2012/01) Maternal serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

(2011/12) Maternal vitamin D, folate, and polyunsaturated fatty acid status and bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy.

(2011/12) Vitamin D status during pregnancy: maternal, fetal, and postnatal outcomes.

(2011/10) Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: double-blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness.

(2011/09) Systematic review of first-trimester vitamin D normative levels and outcomes of pregnancy.

(2011/06) Maternal vitamin D and fetal growth in early-onset severe preeclampsia.

(2011/06) Cord blood vitamin D deficiency is associated with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

(2011/01) Cord-blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of respiratory infection, wheezing, and asthma.

(2011/01) Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common during pregnancy.

(2011/01) Pregnancy-specific association of vitamin D deficiency and bacterial vaginosis.

(2010/12) Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a group at high risk for pre-eclampsia.

(2010/12) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in early-onset severe preeclampsia

(2010/11) A nested case-control study of midgestation vitamin D deficiency and risk of severe preeclampsia

(2010/10) First trimester vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and subsequent preeclampsia.

(2010/05) Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in the United States.

(2010/05) Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with small-for-gestational age births in white women

(2010/01) Low maternal vitamin D status and fetal bone development: cohort study.

(2009/09) Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women: a longitudinal study.

(2009/06) Maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with bacterial vaginosis in the first trimester of pregnancy

(2009/05) Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy

(2009/04) Vitamin D intake during pregnancy: association with maternal characteristics and infant birth weight

(2009/03) Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Primary Cesarean Section

(2008/03) Maternal Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and the Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

(2007/02) High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates

(2006/01) Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study.






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